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Concept of Networking A to Z Epside-02

Concept of Networking A to Z Epside-01

Application Layer

#OSI Layers with Functions

OSI Layers with Functions

#TCP/IP Application Layer

The session, presentation, and application layers of the OSI model are bundled into the application layer of the TCP/IP model.

qmeans that representation, encoding, and dialog control are all handled in the TCP/IP application layer.

TCP/IP Application Layer#TCP/IP Application Layer

The TCP/IP protocols that support file transfer, e-mail, and remote login are probably the most familiar to users of the Internet.

These protocols include the following applications:






# Telnet

TCP/IP Application Layer

#DNS (Domain Naming System)

#A domain is a group of computers that are associated by their geographical location or their business type.


#The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system1.used on the Internet for translating names of domains and their publicly advertised network nodes into IP addresses.

2.A domain name is a string of characters, number, or both.

3.There are more than 200 top-level domains on the Internet,

  • #Example of domains
  • Example of domains
  • Example of domains

#HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol )

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) works with the World Wide Web, which is the fastest growing and most used part of the Internet.

*One of the main reasons for the extraordinary growth of the Web is the ease with which it allows access to information.A Web browser is used to gather any information from the servers connected to WWW.

*It is a client-server application, requires both a client and a server component in order to function.*It presents data in multimedia formats on Web pages that use text, graphics, sound, and video.

*Web pages are created with a format language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

*HTML directs a Web browser on a particular Web page to produce the appearance of the page in a specific manner.



HTML specifies locations (hyperlinks) for the placement of text, files, and objects that are to be transferred from the Web server to the Web browser.

*Hyperlinks make the World Wide Web easy to navigate.*A hyperlink is an object, word, phrase, or picture, on a Web page.

*When that hyperlink is clicked, it directs the browser to a new Web page

*The web page contains, often hidden within its HTML description, an address location known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).



In the URL,”http://” tells the browser which protocol to use.

*The second part, “www”, is the hostname or name of a specific machine with a *pecific IP address.

*The last part, /edu/ identifies the specific folder location on the server that contains the default web page.

    • url

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